Pregnancy which happens at the age of 19 years or younger is known as teenage pregnancy. A female could get pregnant when having sexual activity after she started having her regular menstrual cycle. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, in 2017, reveals that about 194,000 infants have been born to American girls among the ages of 15 to 19. Even though the number of pregnancies has been decreasing in the United States, it remains higher among other developed countries.
Signs and Symptoms:
The pregnancy would be first realized when female skip her regular period. But if getting very light period then it should not be assumed that it could not be a pregnancy because having a little bleeding during the first few weeks of pregnancy is possible. Signs of pregnancy include:
- Missed or very light period
- Inflammation of breast
- Nausea, frequently in the morning
- Feeling dizziness
- Fainting and unconsciousness
- Weight gaining
- Feeling exhausted
- Swelling abdomen
Teenage Pregnancy Affecting Mothers
Teenagers are at a greater probability for pregnancy-related high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and its obstacles than average age mothers. It also includes risks for babies includes premature birth and low birth weight. Moreover, Preeclampsia can also damage the kidneys or may cause death of mother or a baby. Anemia is common in teenage pregnancies which causes reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBC) and women may feel weak and tired. It affects the development of the baby.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), teenage pregnancy causes most serious complications and is the leading cause of death during child delivery. Teen pregnant women usually feel frightened, concerned, and anxious about telling their families and friends. Therefore, they do not get support, which is needed, and person may feel isolated and depressed. This can make the several complications and may also affect the baby’s health. In many cases, pregnant teens cut off their education and lives in poverty. Several studies found that a woman with little or no education having multiple children to look after, will find it very difficult to make a living. Besides, women who got their first pregnancy in teenage are more expected to have more than one child.
Teenage Pregnancy Affecting Babies
Usual pregnancies last for 40 weeks. a childbirth before 37 weeks of pregnancy is premature and is termed as premature birth. According to research, teen mothers usually give birth to premature babies and delayed development is found in these babies which affects their brain and body. It can lead to lifetime health and development problems depending on how premature the baby is. Premature babies also be likely to be underweight and malnourished and might have distress breathing and feeding as newborns.
Underweight babies are more prone to chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases because of malnourishment. Low birth weight also disturbs brain development and have been observed to get learning difficulties.Underweight child and mother who gives a premature birth, both are at higher risk of mortality.
Teenage Pregnancy Affecting Fathers
Becoming a father in teenage can be a terrifying and life-changing event. Teen fathers do not worry about health implications of pregnancy and child delivery, but they are scared to face post-delivery effects such as staying in school, facing a society, and earning a living.
In this modern era, majority of marts and pharmacies sell home pregnancy tests which are designed to detect pregnancy hormones in urine. This test shows more accurate result if female use them after a week of missed menstruation. Besides, after confirming through this test, consultation to a doctor is essential who confirms the pregnancy through blood test or physical examination.
Options for Pregnant Teenagers
Usually the teenage pregnant are afraid to visit a doctor which is extremely important for safety of both, a child, and a mother. Doctors should discuss all the pregnancy related options including:
Abortion, or ending the gestationtherapeutically
Giving birth and legally authorizingsomebody else to raise your kid
Giving birth and raising the child yourself
Healthy Baby for A Teenager
Teen parents can have a healthy child if they visit their doctor as soon as they came to know about pregnancy and attend all the scheduled appointment.
- Proper obstetrical maintenance during the gestation is so significant to the health and wellbeing of equally the mother and the baby.
- Proper diet, physical activity and revealing in friends and relatives also creates a greater impact.
- Smoking effects the mother health and results in having a premature birth of a baby.
- Alcohol abuse also effects on a mother and unborn child. If a person who is addicted to drugs or alcohol must consult the doctor and ask for a treatment program which helps to quit.
- Medications dosage should be followed properly according to doctor’s prescription.
- Proper medical checkup is essential as teenager’s bodies are still developing
Birth Control Methods:
Prescription birth control is accessible through a doctor or a women’s health clinic.
- Intrauterine device (IUD)
This device is implanted in the uterus. This procedure is well tolerated and does not require hospitalization. IUD prevents the pregnancy by different mechanisms and have 99% of accuracy in results.
- Birth control implant
Some birth control techniques involve hormone levels in one’s body, so a person is less expected to become pregnant. The most efficient is a birth control implant, also known as Nexplanon.
It is a very small plastic stick which is inserted under the skin of the arm. Implants remain in place for up to three years. They have showed a 99% effectiveness.
- Other methods
Birth controlling medicines, shots, and patches also affect hormone levels and efficacy rate is about 91 to 94 percent.
The only way to prevent the pregnancy is to avoid sexual intercourse. Though there are many other alternative methods to reduce the chances of pregnancy. Many groups offer therapy and encouragement programs that helps in the prevention of teenage pregnancy and provides information on birth control and help teenagers to understand their sexual restrictions. Some courses offer peer counseling, because it may possibly feel more secure and comfortable conversation with someone of own age.