Introduction of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that takes place in the breast. It takes place when cells begin to grow uncontrolled. Breast cancer cells usually produce a tumour that can are sometimes visible on an x-ray as well. This type of cancer is not only restricted to women, as sometimes men are also affected by breast cancer. According to various researches, most breast lumps are benign and not cancer (malignant). Non-cancerous breast tumours are of irregular growths, as they do not spread outside of the breast. Such breasts are not life-threatening, although it’s kind of benign breast lumps can upsurge female’s risk of having breast cancer. Any transformation of breast lump immediately needs to be consulted by a health care professional to identify if it is benign or malignant (cancer) and if it might influence your future cancer threat.
Breast cancer is therefore considered as one of the most common cancer in American women, except for skin cancers. Presently, there is an average risk that woman in the United States of America developing breast cancer some time during her life span is about 13%. This gives an indication to the fact that there is a 1 in 8 risks that a female will develop breast cancer. On the other hand, it also explains that there is a 7 in 8 chance that each woman will never have the disease of breast cancer.
Reasons for Breast Cancer
The breast cancers can initiate from various parts of the breast. In most of the cases, the breast cancers take place in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal cancers). Some of the breast cancer begins in the glands that produce breast milk (lobular cancers). Most of the time, breast cancers are less common and less prevalent such as phyllodes tumour and angiosarcoma. The small percentage of cancers start in other tissues in the breast. These cancers are known as sarcomas and lymphomas but they are not really considered as breast cancers.
Numerous types of breast cancer can result in a lump in the breast, but not in every case. Most of the breast cancers are also found on screening mammograms, that can help the health professional to diagnose the cancers at the very earlier stage. The early diagnoses mean that the patient has not even felt any pain and neither any symptoms have been developed yet.
Types of breast cancer
There are various types of breast cancer whereas the prevailing one includes ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma. Other include phyllodes tumours and angiosarcoma that are less common among the masses.
As soon as the health professional is done with the biopsy, breast cancer cells are tested for proteins called estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2. The tumour cells are also closely examined in the lab to discover the grade. The specific proteins discovered and the tumour grade can assist in deciding options of treatment.
How breast cancer prevails
Breast cancer can prevail when the cancer cells are mixed with the blood or lymph system and are carried to the remaining parts of the body. The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body that interconnects lymph nodes (small bean-shaped collections of immune system cells). The clear fluid inside the lymph vessels, called lymph, constitute of tissue by-products and waste material, as well as immune system cells. The lymph vessels carry lymph fluid away from the breast. In the case of breast cancer, cancer cells can pass inform those lymph vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes. Most of the lymph vessels of the breast drain into:
- Lymph nodes under the arm (axillary nodes)
- Lymph nodes around the collar bone (supraclavicular [above the collar bone] and infraclavicular [below the collar bone] lymph nodes)
- Lymph nodes inside the chest near the breast bone (internal mammary lymph nodes)
- If cancer cells have prevailed across your lymph nodes, there is a greater probability that the cells could have travelled through the lymph system and spread (metastasized) to other organs of your body. The excessive lymph nodes with breast cancer cells, the more probability is that cancer may be found in other organs too. Due to this reason, diagnosing cancer in one or more lymph nodes often impacts your treatment plan. Frequently, surgery is required to remove one or more lymph nodes to understand whether cancer has spread into other parts of the body or not.
Current year estimates for breast cancer
The estimates of American Cancer Society’s for breast cancer in the United States for the year 2020 are:
- Approximately the number of 276,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in females.
- Approximately 48,530 new cases of carcinoma in situ (CIS) will be identified (CIS is non-invasive and is the initial type of breast cancer).
- Around 42,170 women won’t recover from breast cancer and will die from it.
Trends in breast cancer deaths
Breast cancer is considered as the second most leading reason of cancer death in women (only lung cancer kills more women each year). Since 2007, the rate of breast cancer death has been stabled in women ageing less than 50, but have continued to lessen in old aged women. According to the statistics extracted from American Cancer Society’s, 2013 to 2017, there has been a decreased of1.3% per year in the fatality of women from breast cancer. The reason behind such decreased is believed to be the result of discovering breast cancer earlier with the help of screening and growing awareness among the public, as well as better treatments and innovation technologies.
Breast cancer survivors
In the United States of America, there are currently more than 3.5 million breast cancer survivors. The number includes all those women who are still being treated with the disease of breast cancer and also those who have successfully overcome the pain of this disease and have completed the treatment.